Former Orchard - Following Phase I recommendations, a Phase II assessment was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of lead and arsenic in surface soil at a former apple orchard. The arsenic policy in Pennsylvania allows soil mixing to attain health standards at former agricultural properties proposed for development. However, this policy is difficult to implement, and an accurate sampling program is critical as a reliable basis for site evaluation. As part of the Phase II assessment, a sampling plan consistent with regulatory guidelines was designed and implemented. Phase II activities also included the evaluation of a former farm dump through the use of test trenches, sampling, and laboratory analysis.

The combined Phase I/II investigations for this 80-acre tract were completed within a four-week period.

Captive Landfill - Directed a closure investigation to determine the nature and extent of a captive landfill. The integrated site investigation consisted of a resistivity survey, the installation of test borings and test pits, and soil and laboratory analysis of selected soil and groundwater samples. The test borings verified the accuracy of the resistivity survey, and the buried fill area was mapped in detail at a relatively low cost.

Based on this information, a closure plan was developed that included groundwater assessment and monitoring to verify the integrity of the groundwater underlying the site.

Residual Waste Landfill - Conducted the geologic and hydrogeologic portions of an expansion permit application for a 117-acre landfill. The groundwater investigation consisted of the installation, pump, and permeability testing of numerous wells. Geophysical investigations were conducted to high-grade well locations, and consisted of 18,500 feet of VLF EM profiling, 14,100 feet of EM profiling, 6,000 feet of seismic refraction profiles and 600 feet of resistivity profiles and soundings to locate water-bearing fractures in the bedrock. Geophysical features indicating potential fractures in the bedrock were tested by forty-one (41) test wells, indicating a good correlation with geophysical anomalies, and a poor correlation with aerial fracture traces.

Residual Waste Landfill - Conducted the geologic, hydrogeologic, and soils investigations required as part of the permit application for a 661-acre landfill on a 1,326-acre site. Work included site evaluation of geologic, geophysical, hydrological and soil conditions. The investigation consisted of numerous test pits, the drilling, evaluation, and interpretation of 40 core borings to determine detailed stratigraphy across the site; the installation, logging, and sampling of 12 monitoring wells, and a 7,200 seismic refraction survey to determine depth of overburden and slope of underlying bedrock.

Test Boring
Documenting soil probe stratigraphy
Geophysical Survey
Buried drums missed by a Phase I Site Visit
Ground conductivity
GPR signature of three orphan USTs

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Douglas Sammak - AA&E