600-acre, 174-lot Subdivision. A hydrogeologic study utilizing conductivity, seismic, and very low frequency geophysical investigations characterized fracture patterns and groundwater flow in a shale bedrock aquifer. Monitoring wells indicated elevated nitrates in several of the fracture systems. The contaminated fracture systems were identified by the geophysical surveys. The geophysical data identified another pattern of fractures that appeared separate from the contaminated fractures. This integrated interpretation of geological and geophysical data resulted in three additional proposed drilling locations that were tested. The second set of wells produced 20 to 100 gallons per minute of uncontaminated water and resulted in development approval.

50-acre, 15-lot Subdivision. Managed hydrogeologic study that utilized geophysical investigations to locate bedrock fractures and identify proposed well locations for a water supply/on-lot disposal impact study. 3,500 feet of very low frequency and seismic survey resulted in three proposed drilling locations. These locations were drilled and encountered 25 to 120 gallon per minute flows with good water quality.

Residual Waste Landfill - Conducted the geologic and hydrogeologic portions of the expansion permit application for a 117-acre landfill. Directed and managed all field investigations conducted for the permit application. Groundwater investigation consisted of the installation, pump, and permeability testing of numerous wells. Geophysical investigations were conducted to high-grade well locations, and consisted of 18,500 feet of VLF EM profiling, 14,100 feet of EM profiling, 6,000 feet of seismic refraction profiles and 600 feet of resistivity profiles and soundings to locate water-bearing fractures in the bedrock aquifer. Geophysical features indicating potential fractures in the bedrock were tested by forty-one (41) test wells, indicating a good correlation with geophysical anomalies, and a poor correlation with aerial fracture traces.

Captive Landfill - Conducted a closure investigation to determine the nature and extent of foundry sand fill on the site and its potential on and off-site environmental impact. During the groundwater assessment phase of this project, geophysical surveys and aerial photographs were used to locate a fracture system in the bedrock for optimum monitoring well placement. Monitoring wells encountered the fracture and produced 10 to 15 gallons per minute of groundwater. Well testing indicated minor groundwater degradation of the type associated with municipal waste. Review of historic aerial photographs showed that an abandoned township landfill, adjacent to the subject property, was the cause of groundwater contamination at the site.

Based on this information, the economics of alternative closure and beneficial use permits were determined and a state approved closure plan was implemented.

Industrial Park - Conducted geophysical surveys and test borings for the site evaluation of a 25-acre property located in limestone terrain. Used geophysical surveys to provide economical site coverage between boring locations. Provided depth to bedrock map across the site and preliminary engineering data for foundation design. Final report outlined areas of high sinkhole and solution zone potential for planning consideration.

Interstate Highway - Used aerial photographs, conductivity, resistivity, and seismic methods to optimally locate five groundwater-monitoring wells in an environmentally sensitive area underlain by limestone bedrock. The impact study delineated sensitive environmental areas, located areas of particularly troublesome bedrock characteristics, and assisted in establishing a groundwater monitoring network to provide baseline data for on-going monitoring or environmental impact.

Groundwater Modeling- Constructed a groundwater model covering a twelve (12) square mile area around the Buzby Brothers Landfill as part of the site development requirements for an adjacent residential development proposal. Shallow groundwater required a subdrain system for the development that had the potential to alter the geometry of the contaminant plume associated with the aquifer. The model was calibrated to match surrounding well data, nearby water bodies, and the recharge/discharge budget for the basin. The hydrogeologic model was relatively complex and included several geologic formations and the affect of streams in the basin.





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